Note on Feasts
Pages 35R-41V are all Office of the Dead and then it moves down the liturgical calendar (see Chant Research 35R-65V)
Chant Transcription 6v-35r
Chant Research 35R-65V
Chant Transcription 35R-65V
Note on Chant Transcription
Notes that are coloured in grey were later additions. Feasts are included to the best of my ability.
Within my research of the Chants I had found various characteristics that seemed to be only present within MS.1, like the fact that the Office of the Dead appears first. Although that answer remains unknown what I have found fits alongside others work on the manuscript.
To begin, the chants fit within within the liturgical calendar. Starting first with a tonery, which is an introductory chants that follow eight different tones. Following is a section on the Office of the Dead, Advent, Christmas and so on. Therefore the layout follows from November during All Saints Day covering most liturgical calendar days throughout the year.
As seen beside in the chart (Fig.1) for each of the eight tones there is about 6 verses. Most of these verses end with Gloria Patri (noted in Fig. 2), which is a hymn praising God. These verses are noted through rubrication, or red V. In the second tone, there is however a rubricated V between the last verse Gloria Patri which does not appear in the other seven.
V: Gloria patri et [6v] filio et spiritui sancto
V: Sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper et in secula seculorum amen.
My theory to explain this was either it was a mistake made by the script hand or a possibly a way of changing the tones to fit within a different melody.
Office of the Dead
One of the most interesting things is that the Office of the Dead in MS.1 appears first. The chants within the Office of the Dead do follow similar layout to a comparison I found at medievalist.net.
The first thing noticeable within the Office of the Dead is the inclusion of two invitatorium, What are they? An invitatory is an important item which is responsorial in its methods of the performance yet more like an antiphon in musical style and liturgical function. Invitation piece for a specific feast day or office (Andrews, 36). Psalm verses are sung by Soloists and the refrain is choral (Andrews, 34).In this case of MS.1 rubrication shows the beginning of the invitatory of the Office of the Dead.
According to medievalist.net, which is a website that highlights the hours of the office and their psalms, antiphons and responses, it mentions that within the Office of the dead;
“The Invitatory following is said on the day of the memory of all the dead, and as often as the three Nocturnes are said as before, at other times it is omitted, and is begun at the Antiphon of the Psalms of the Nocturne, and one only Nocturne with the Lauds, is said in this order: On Monday and Thursday, the first Nocturne: Tuesday and Friday, the second Nocturne: Wednesday and Saturday, the third Nocturne”(http://medievalist.net/hourstxt/deadmata.htm).
Examples from the first nocturne show that the manuscript follows the outline on medievalist.net and incorporates within the antiphon excepts from Job and various psalms throughout the Book of Psalms. This is compared in my notes found here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1M3eqqmeT1seplyTQFRgO8vNUe3P9_y6phjT-ftSimAk/edit?usp=sharing
The first invitatory within the manuscript is:
Regem cui omnia uiuu(n)t p(salamus) venite adorem(us) Uenite exultem(us) domino p(salamus) iubilem(us) deo salutari nostro preocupem(us) faciem ei(us) in co(n)fessio(n)e et in psalmis iubilemus ei. This translation seems to follow similar words to Psalm 95, in Jerome's Venite exultemus( mentioned in Mattea's presentation).
There is also an alius invitatory or alternate invitation piece.
Alternate or Alius invitatory
Circu(m)de deru(n)t me gemit(us) moras p(salamus) Dolores in ferni circu(n)de deru(n)t me psalamus venite
"This Antiphon is used in the Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum and set by Hernando Franco for four voices (SATB). The Circumdederunt is often especially used by Spanish and Portuguese composers in the Office of the Dead like Cristobal de Morales(c.1500-1553), Pedro Fernandez (1483-1574), Aires Fernandez (16th C.), Juan de Avila ( 16th C.), Hernando Franco (1532-1585), Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (c.1590-1664), Bartolomeo Trosylho (1500-1567), the German Balthasar de Senarius (c.1485-1544) and even Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594), Jacob Regnart (1540-1599) and William Byrd (1543-1623) did." This Antiphon is set by them all as an invitatory Antiphon for the Office of the Dead(http://www.requiemsurvey.org/composers.php?id=2807).
From this source it appears that the Circumderunt within the text is often used by Spanish composers in the Office of the Dead. Although many on the list are from the sixteenth century later than MS.1 has been dated , it may have been possible that these were texts were adopted by composers from elsewhere and adapted within Spain.
Conclusions from the invitatories
According to Andrew Hughes, the invitatory for mass is more antiphonal in form and style; characterized by the reduced number of psalm verses in normal psalm-antiphonal structure. Since MS. 1 appears to follow normal set of antiphon and psalm and also has reduced psalms; different than what "the entrance procession in papal churches [in mass would] probably used the whole psalm" (Andrews, 35). I believe that the chants in MS.1 would not be used during an invitatory for Mass but rather for use by monks and or for teaching chant within the church.
Antiphonus ad Maginifcat
Also Ms.1 has an Antiphonus ad Maginifcat, which is a canticle sung at the end of vespers, lauds and compline (Andrews, 24). The Magnificat canticle is a common text but its antiphon is not (Andrews, 46). A common way to find the magnificat canticle is to look for the O's within the text such as on 28r of MS.1.
Conclusions of Office of the Dead
The Chants included within the text are very helpful at distinguishing the type of manuscript this is. Due to the various amounts of antiphons this text would be considered a Antiphonal psalmody. This means the manuscript relies on choral performance (Andrews, 30). Often in an antiphonal psalmody two choirs would alternate singing (https://www.britannica.com/art/antiphonal-singing). This is notable throughout the text such as in the Office of the Dead, one of the largest parts of the manuscript, where the antiphons and psalms appear in sets.
Still unknown: is why is the Office of the Dead placed first?
The Rest of the Text
As gathered by Lauren through her transcription of the chants, the majority of the remaining text after the Office of the Dead has either few melodies associated within the words located on the Cantus database, or different texts that are similar but only for a feast day. An overall examination, also confirms that many of these remaining feasts days are quite small sections with a few melodies and follow similar patterns of being said at either matins, lauds or vespers.
Similarities to Chants on Cantus
There are three main manuscripts that have similarities to MS.1 on the Cantus Database.
As for similarities of chant, MS.1 had very similar melodies to Manuscript D-Mbs Clm 4304 on the Cantus Database. This Manuscript is called Munchen, Beyerische Staatsbibliothek and is from Augsburg, dated 1519. It is an Antiphoner from the Benedictine monastery of SS.Ulrich and Afra in Augsburg. It was written by Frater Leonhard, a famous manuscript illuminator.
Similarities between this manuscript and MS 1 lie within the melody; both include the office of the dead, four line staphs and square notation. In MS. 1 the Office of the dead ranges from Also as explained in Cantus database there is:
Closeness of the Augsburg codices in the Melk tradition to early Franciscan codices. (Much the same pattern is to be observed in books of the Olivetan reform, beginning in the year 1313, which have the same order of the chants and the "rubrica romana"). There are some small differences in the melodies, but not many. All these reforms are marked by an adaptation of the secular to the monastic cursus, an abbreviation of the Office, a uniform practice of modal assignments and differentiae, and, finally, a limitation of the ambitus (Cantus, http://cantusdatabase.org/source/374105/d-mbs-clm-4304).
What this suggests is that although through others work on the project such as paleography, we have dated this manuscript previous to 1519, perhaps the author of the manuscript D-Mbs Clm 4304, Frater Leonhard, had copied from this text or previous chants from the Franciscan order.
Differences between Ms. 1 and this text was the occurence of Christe el(eison) or Kyrie l(eyson)= which is originally greek and means “Lord have Mercy” (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08714a.htm).
As mentioned by Lauren during her transcription there were no particular chant resemblance was found in other texts, but similar layout in MS 1 to this chant, Kyrie XI ("orbis factor")—a fairly ornamented setting of the Kyrie in Gregorian chant—from the Liber Usualis (fig.3).
Another similarity was between MS.1 was with the manuscript on the cantus database known as US-CHN bcbl 097, which is a Franciscan antiphoner (sanctorale). This one originates from the 1300s, however there is no certainty of what country it came from. It also has staff notation, small square notes, and cathedral (curial-franciscan curses). Interestingly this manuscript has nine tones for the invitatory psalm. This is not present in MS 1, however it has the 8 different tones located at the beginning of the text as well as it has two invitatories for the Office of the Dead. The manuscript has various hands; including two kinds of textual hands and three main musicians. It is located in John J. Burns Library in Boston College 1996. Like D-Mbs Clm 4304, the Office of the Dead is also located at the back of the text (Cantus, http://cantus.uwaterloo.ca/source/656252).
Lastly, within the later half of the text a manuscript that had similar chants to MS.1 was Cz-Pak (Praha) Cim 7, which is dated from the 14th century. This manuscript is a psalterium. The provenance of this manuscript is thought to be from Prague. The script is gothic and the notation is bohemian. Many similarities with MS. 1 line up with the Adventus- or the period of Advent as well as other later saints days and events within the liturgical calendar (Cantus, http://cantusbohemiae.cz/source/9138).
To conclude, MS.1 is an interesting manuscript that includes many different chants, elements that when compared against other manuscripts on Cantus did not always much up. What can be speculated though is from the eight tones within the beginning of the text, also the fact that this text at this part is very warn is that the chants are the important part of the text. In many sections, Ms.1 only takes bits and pieces of other psalms or literature. Therefore it is in my opinion that this text, is most likely valued for its chants, and music.
Fig.1-Chart of Tonery
1R-1V 1st Tone 1st verse
1V 1st Tone 2nd verse
1V-2V 1st tone 3rd verse
2V-3R 1st tone 4th verse
3R-3V 1st tone 5th verse
3V 1st tone 6th verse
3V-4R 2nd tone 1st verse
4R-4V 2nd tone 2nd verse
5V-5R 2nd tone 3rd verse
5R-5V 2nd tone 4th verse
5V-6R 2nd tone 5th verse
6R-6V 2nd Tone 6th verse
6V 2nd tone 7th verse?
6V-7R 3rd tone 1st verse
7R-7V 3rd tone 2nd verse
7V-8R 3rd tone 3rd verse
8R-8V 3rd tone 4th verse
8V-9R 3rd tone 5th verse
9R-9V 3rd tone 6th verse
9V-10R 4th tone 1st verse
10r-10v 4th tone 2nd verse
10v-11r 4th tone 3rd verse
11r-11v 4th tone 4th verse
11v-12r 4th tone 5th verse
12r-12v 4th tone 6th verse
12v-13r 4b tone 1st verse
13r-13v 4b tone 2nd verse
13v-14r 4b tone 3rd verse
14r-14v 4b tone 4th verse
14v-15r 4b tone 5th verse
15r-15v 4b tone 6th verse
15-v-16r 5th tone 1st verse
16r-16v 5th tone 2nd verse
16v-17r 5th tone 3rd verse
17v-18r 5th tone 4th verse
18r-18v 5th tone 5th verse
18v 5th tone 6th verse
19r 6th tone 1st verse
19r-19v 6th tone 2nd verse
19v-20v 6th tone 3rd verse
20v-21r 6th tone 4th verse
21r-21v 6th tone 5th verse
21v 6th tone 6th verse
21v-22r 7th tone 1st verse
22r-22v 7th tone 2nd verse
22v-23r 7th tone 3rd verse
23r-23v 7th tone 4th verse
23v-24r 7th tone 5th verse
24r-24v 7th tone 6th verse
24v 8th tone 1st verse
24v-25r 8th tone 2nd verse
25r-26r 8th tone 3rd verse
26r-26v 8th tone 4th verse
26v 8th tone 5th verse
27r 8th tone 6th verse
Fig.2-"Gloria Patri." Wikipedia. April 06, 2017. Accessed April 09, 2017.
Fig. 3 "Kyrie." Wikipedia. April 06, 2017. Accessed April 09, 2017.
Bibliography-for Research of Chants
"Franciscan Antiphoner, John J. Burns Library, Boston College MS.1996.097." Cantus Manuscript Database. Accessed April 07, 2017. http://cantus.uwaterloo.ca/source/656252.
Gunhouse, Glen. "A Hypertext Book of Hours." Hypertext Book of Hours, Home Page. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://medievalist.net/hourstxt/home.htm.
Gunhouse, Glen. "Officium Pro Defunctis." Office for the Dead, Matins. Accessed April 06, 2017. http://medievalist.net/hourstxt/deadmata.htm.
"Hernando Franco 1532 - 1585 Spain / Mexico." Requiemsurvey.org. Accessed April 09, 2017. http://www.requiemsurvey.org/composers.php?id=280.
Hughes, Andrew. Medieval Manuscripts For Mass and Office: A Guide to Their Organization and Terminology. Toronto, Ontario:University of Toronto Press, 1982. accessed March 17th, 2017. http://books1.scholarsportal.info.proxy.library.carleton.ca/viewdoc.html?id=/ebooks/ebooks0/gibson_crkn/2009-12-01/6/417594#tabview=tab0
"Kyrie Eleison." Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed April 09, 2017. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08714a.htm.
Koláček, Jan . "Cz-Pak (Praha) Cim 7." Fontes Cantus Bohemiae. Accessed April 07, 2017. http://cantusbohemiae.cz/source/9138.
"München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 4304." Cantus Manuscript Database. Accessed March 19th , 2017. http://cantus.uwaterloo.ca/source/123682.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Antiphonal Singing." Encyclopædia Britannica. April 19, 2007. Accessed April 09, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/art/antiphonal-singing.